A 'periodical' or 'serial' = any publication published regularly (includes magazines, newspapers, newsletters).
A ‘scholarly’/academic’ journal: periodical containing research articles, that is peer-reviewed, and aimed at researchers.
Peer review: every paper/article submitted to the journal is reviewed by independent experts. Papers are accepted/rejected based on quality.
Databases allow you to discover what has been published in the journals, in your area of research. The following are a good starting-point for a literature search for your research topic:
OneSearch searches across a lot of the Library print AND electronic resources at the same time, including:
Information on how to use OneSearch