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Academic Integrity: Citation Styles

Ethics in Using Information


A style can govern the whole layout of your work e.g. margins, font, spacing, alignment etc. A particular style is often used by a discipline and publishers within it. Getting familiar with a style will serve you well for the future. Always check which style to use with your Lecturer/School.

Websites and books for some of the main styles are listed below:

Harvard Style (Author-Date Style)

It’s important to realise that there is no definitive version of the 'Harvard style'- the term 'Harvard Style' can refer to any referencing style which uses an author-date format for its in-text citations. It requires two elements:
in-text citation within the body of the work AND
full reference at the end of the work.

Many departments adopt the Harvard style and may have their own variations of it. Follow your department’s guidelines as outlined in the Student Handbook, or in class. examples of versions of Harvard style:

American Psychological Association (APA) Style - Author-Date Style

Chicago Style - two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (common in Humanities) and (2) author-date (sciences & social sciences)

IEEE Style (numbered)

Modern Languages Association (MLA)

OSCOLA Ireland A comprehensive system of legal citation for Ireland

Vancouver - numbered style commonly used in medicine and science