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Academic Integrity: Citation Styles

Ethics in Using Information


A style can govern the whole layout of your work e.g. margins, font, spacing, alignment etc. A particular style is often used by a discipline and publishers within it. Getting familiar with a style will serve you well for the future. Always check which style to use with your Lecturer/School.

Websites and books for some of the main styles are listed below:

Harvard - Author-Date Style

The approved UCC version of Harvard referencing uses an author-date format for its in-text citations. It requires two elements:
in-text citation within the body of the work
full reference at the end of the work

Consult UCC’s Harvard Referencing Guide for the version of Harvard used in UCC. This guide follows the standard version found in the book Cite Them Right by Richard Pears and Graham Shields (hard copies located in the Boole Library on Q+3 floor at 808 PEAR).

American Psychological Association (APA) - Author-Date Style

Chicago Style - two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (common in Humanities) and (2) author-date (sciences & social sciences)

IEEE (numbered)

Modern Languages Association (MLA)

OSCOLA Ireland A comprehensive system of legal citation for Ireland

Vancouver - numbered style commonly used in medicine and science