A 'periodical' or 'serial': any publication published regularly (includes magazines, newspapers, newsletters).
A ‘scholarly’/academic’ journal: periodical containing research articles, that is peer-reviewed, and aimed at researchers.
Peer review: every paper/article submitted to the journal is reviewed by independent experts. Papers are accepted/rejected based on quality.
The earliest Master's thesis dates from 1911: Conroy, Thomas. Intellect and will and their relation.
The earliest PhD thesis dates from 1939: MacCarthy, Bridget Gerard. Women's contribution to the development of the English novel: 1621-1818. The full-text to this thesis is also available on CORA.